In the present review, keeping in mind the aforementioned research questions (p.3), the researchers break down their findings in reference to the training outcomes of games and simulations into three categories, namely cognitive, behavioural, and affective outcomes. A map of the emerging concepts, which can be further discussed, is illustrated below (Fig. 8):

Fig. 8
Learning outcomes of Games/Simulations

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Cognitive outcomes
Many reviewed studies discuss the impact of GBL activities in learner knowledge acquisition and conceptual understanding (Hainey et al., 2011; Connolly et al., 2012; Fu et al., 2016; Geithner & Menzel, 2016). There has been an impression evaluation across subject disciplines, like computing (Strycker, 2016), Engineering (Chaves et al., 2015), Physics (Adams, 2016), Medicine (Dankbaar, 2016), Nursing (Sarabia-Cobo, 2016), Management (Geithner & Menzel, 2016), Political Sciences (Jones & Bursens, 2015), Education (Ke, 2015), Languages (Franciosi, 2016), and Social Sciences (Cózar-Gutiérrez & Sáez-López, 2016).

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